As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 1, 2020

 

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

California   94-3127919

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200

Carlsbad, California 92008

 

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Brandi L. Roberts

Chief Financial Officer

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200

Carlsbad, CA 92008

(442) 287-8990

 

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

Steven M. Przesmicki, Esq.

Cooley LLP

4401 Eastgate Mall

San Diego, CA 92121

(858) 550-6000

Chase Leavitt, Esq.

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200

Carlsbad, CA 92008

(442) 287-8990

 

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to public)

 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer ☒
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company ☒
  Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

  Amount to be Registered  

Proposed Maximum

Offering Price per Unit

  

Proposed Maximum

Aggregate Offering Price

  

Amount of Registration

Fee(1)

 
Common Shares, no par value         (2)         (3)   (3)    
Preferred Shares, no par value    (2)    (3)   (3)    
Debt Securities    (2)    (3)   (3)    
Warrants    (2)    (3)   (3)    
Total    (2)       $75,000,000   $9,735(4)

 

(1) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”).
   
(2) There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of common shares and preferred shares, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common shares, preferred shares or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $75,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $75,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of common shares and preferred shares and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred shares or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of common shares and preferred shares as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
   
(3) The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
   
(4) Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant hereby offsets the total registration fee due under this Registration Statement by the amount of the filing fee associated with $49,999,999 of unsold securities (“Unsold Securities”), previously registered on the Registrant’s Form S-3 Registration Statement, initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“Commission”), on April 6, 2017 (File No. 333-217182) and declared effective by the Commission on May 5, 2017 (as amended, the “Prior Registration Statement”). The associated filing fee of $5,686 for the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement is hereby used to offset the current registration fee due, resulting in a registration fee in the amount of $4,049 due in connection with the filing of this Registration Statement. Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the offering of the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement is deemed terminated as of the date of the filing of this Registration Statement.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

   

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains:

 

  a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of the registrant’s common shares, preferred shares, debt securities and/or warrants from time to time in one or more offerings; and
     
  a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $25,000,000 of the registrant’s common shares that may be offered, issued and sold from time to time under a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The prospectus relating to the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement immediately follows the base prospectus. The $25,000,000 of common shares that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement prospectus is included in the $75,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., any portion of the $25,000,000 included in the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, the full $25,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

 

   

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 1, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

$75,000,000

 

Common Shares

Preferred Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $75,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Our common shares trade on the NYSE American and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (“TASE”) under the symbol “LCTX.” On April 29, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common shares on the NYSE American was $0.8680 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the NYSE American, TASE, or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

 

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 5 of this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is        , 2020.

 

 

 

   

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Contents

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS i
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1
RISK FACTORS 5
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 6
USE OF PROCEEDS 7
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 8
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 10
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 17
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 22
LEGAL MATTERS 24
EXPERTS 24
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 24
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE 24

 

   

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $75,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

 

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of such document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Lineage,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. Our focus is to develop therapies for degenerative retinal diseases, neurological conditions associated with demyelination, and aiding the body in detecting and combating cancer. Our programs are based on our proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated development and manufacturing capabilities. From this platform, we develop and manufacture specialized, terminally or partially differentiated human cells from established and well-characterized pluripotent cell lines. These differentiated cells are developed either to replace or support cells that are dysfunctional or absent due to degenerative disease or traumatic injury, or are administered as a means of helping the body mount an effective immune response to cancer.

 

Product Candidates & Other Programs

 

We have three allogeneic, or “off-the-shelf,” cell therapy programs in clinical development:

 

  OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy currently in a Phase 1/2a multicenter clinical trial for the treatment of advanced dry age-related macular degeneration (“AMD”) with geographic atrophy. There currently are no therapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for dry AMD, which accounts for approximately 85-90% of all AMD cases and is a leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65.
     
  OPC1, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy for acute spinal cord injuries. We have completed enrollment in a 25-patient Phase 1/2a multicenter clinical trial with OPC1; this trial was partially funded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. There are currently no therapies approved by the FDA.
     
  VAC2, a cancer immunotherapy of antigen-presenting dendritic cells currently in a Phase 1 clinical trial in non-small cell lung cancer. This clinical trial is being funded and conducted by Cancer Research UK, the world’s largest independent cancer research charity.

 

Ownership in Other Companies

 

In addition to seeking to create value for shareholders by developing product candidates and other technologies through our clinical development programs, we also seek to create value from our technologies through partnering and strategic transactions. We founded two companies that later became publicly traded companies: OncoCyte Corporation and AgeX Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Though our principal focus is on advancing our three cell therapy programs in clinical development, we may seek to create additional value through corporate transactions, as we have in the past. Our securities holdings also may be a significant source of capital to fund our operations as an alternative to issuing additional Lineage securities.

 

 

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Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated in the State of California under the name BioTime, Inc. In August 2019, we changed our name to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. Our common shares trade on the NYSE American and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (“TASE”) under the symbol “LCTX.” Our principal executive offices are at 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200, Carlsbad, California 92008, and our phone number at that address is (442) 287-8990. Our website address is www.lineagecell.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and TM, but such references should not be construed as any indication that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

We may offer our common shares and preferred shares, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities, up to a total aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  designation or classification;
     
  aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
     
  maturity;
     
  original issue discount;
     
  rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;
     
  redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms;
     
  ranking;
     
  restrictive covenants;
     
  voting or other rights;
     
  conversion or exchange prices or rates and any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and
     
  important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

 

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

  the names of those underwriters or agents;

 

 

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  applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
     
  details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
     
  the estimated net proceeds to us.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Common Shares. We may issue our common shares from time to time. Each holder of common shares is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, and, subject to certain exceptions, does not have cumulative voting rights. Subject to preferences that may apply to any outstanding preferred shares, holders of our common shares are entitled to receive ratably any dividends that our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for that purpose. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common shares are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred shares. Holders of our common shares have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common share. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common shares are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred shares that we may designate in the future. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of our common shares under the heading “Description of Capital Stock—Common Shares.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common shares being offered.

 

Preferred Shares. We may issue preferred shares from time to time, in one or more series. Under our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders (unless such shareholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or market on which our securities are then traded), to issue up to 2,000,000 preferred shares in one or more series and to fix the number, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences and sinking fund terms, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common shares. Any convertible preferred shares we may issue will be convertible into our common shares or exchangeable for our other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

If we sell any series of preferred shares under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred shares, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred shares that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred shares. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred shares under the heading “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Shares.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred shares being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred shares.

 

Debt Securities. From time to time, we may issue debt securities in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

 

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Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under the heading “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indenture(s) and any supplemental indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed a form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered.

 

Warrants. We may issue warrants for the purchase of common shares, preferred shares or debt securities, in one or more series, from time to time. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common shares, preferred shares or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under the heading “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that we may offer as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

 

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may be issued under a warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, and the documents incorporated in this prospectus by reference, contain forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections titled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our most recent subsequent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, filed with the SEC.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “positioned,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of those terms, and similar expressions intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these statements.

 

Any statements in this prospectus, or incorporated herein by reference, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”) these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

 

  our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;
     
  the initiation, progress, success, cost and timing of our clinical trials and product development activities;
     
  the therapeutic potential of our product candidates, and the disease indications for which we intend to develop our product candidates;
     
  our ability and timing to advance our product candidates into, and to successfully initiate, conduct, enroll and complete, clinical trials;
     
  our ability to manufacture our product candidates for clinical development and, if approved, for commercialization, and the timing and costs of such manufacture;
     
  the performance of third parties in connection with the development and manufacture of our product candidates, including third parties conducting our clinical trials as well as third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
     
  the potential of our cell therapy platform, and our plans to apply our platform to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;
     
  our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to initiate and complete clinical trials of our product candidates;
     
  the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
     
  the potential scope and value of our intellectual property rights;
     
  our ability, and the ability of our licensors, to obtain, maintain, defend and enforce intellectual property rights protecting our product candidates, and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties;
     
  our ability to recruit and retain key personnel;
     
  the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations;
     
  our expected use of proceeds from any offering under this prospectus; and
     
  other risks and uncertainties, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.

 

Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures, which may include costs of funding future acquisitions or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Pending the use of net proceeds, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following description of our capital stock and certain provisions of: (i) our Restated Articles of Incorporation, as amended (as amended by the Certificate of Ownership, the “Articles”); (ii) our Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”); and (iii) applicable California law. This description is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the Articles and the Bylaws, each of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and applicable California law.

 

Authorized Capital Stock

 

We are authorized to issue an aggregate of 252,000,000 shares of capital stock consisting of 250,000,000 common shares and 2,000,000 preferred shares.

 

Common Shares

 

Voting Rights

 

Each holder of common shares is entitled to one vote for each common share held on every matter properly submitted to the shareholders for their vote; provided that such holders may have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors if the candidates’ names have been placed in nomination prior to commencement of the voting and the shareholder has given notice prior to commencement of the voting of the shareholder’s intention to cumulate votes.

 

Dividend Rights

 

Subject to any preferential rights or preferences of preferred shares outstanding, if any, holders of the common shares are entitled to any dividend declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose.

 

Liquidation Rights

 

Subject to any preferential rights or preferences of holders of preferred shares outstanding, if any, holders of the common shares are entitled to receive on a pro rata basis all of our remaining assets available for distribution to the holders of the common shares in the event of the liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of our operations.

 

No Preemptive or Similar Rights.

 

Holders of the common shares do not have any preemptive rights to become subscribers or purchasers of additional shares of any class of our capital stock. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common shares.

 

Rights of Preferred Shares May be Senior to Common Shares.

 

Any series of preferred shares authorized by our board of directors may be senior to and have greater rights and preferences than the common shares and may have restrictions on our repurchase or redemption of shares.

 

Preferred Shares

 

Our board of directors is authorized, without further action of the shareholders, to issue up to 2,000,000 preferred shares in one or more series, at any time, and to determine or alter the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to or imposed upon the preferred shares as a class or upon any wholly unissued series of preferred shares. Our board of directors may increase or decrease (but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding) the number of shares of any series of preferred shares subsequent to the issue of shares of that series.

 

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred shares with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common shares. The issuance of preferred shares, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common shares and may adversely affect the market price of our common shares and the voting and other rights of the holders of common shares.

 

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Anti-takeover Provisions of the Articles, Bylaws and California Law

 

Provisions of the Articles and Bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in control of our company or change in its management, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares, or transactions that its shareholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Among other things, the Articles and Bylaws:

 

  provide that, except for a vacancy caused by the removal of a director by the shareholders or by court order, a vacancy on the board of directors may be filled by approval of a majority of the remaining directors, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director;
     
  provide that shareholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of shareholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of shareholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of such notice;
     
  authorize the board of directors to issue preferred shares in series and to fix rights and preferences of the series (including, among other things, whether, and to what extent, the shares of any series will have voting rights and the extent of the preferences of the shares of any series with respect to dividends and other matters); and
     
  provide that, at a meeting of shareholders at which directors are to be elected, no shareholder shall be entitled to cumulate votes unless the candidates’ names have been placed in nomination prior to commencement of the voting and the shareholder has given notice prior to commencement of the voting of the shareholder’s intention to cumulate vote.

 

In addition, as a California corporation, we are subject to the provisions of Section 1203 of the California General Corporation Law, which requires us to provide a fairness opinion to our shareholders in connection with their consideration of any proposed “interested party” reorganization transaction.

 

Listing

 

Our common shares are listed on the NYSE American and on the TASE under the symbol “LCTX.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common shares is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (“Trust Indenture Act”). We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

General

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” (“OID”), for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

  the title of the series of debt securities;
     
  any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;
     
  the maturity date or dates;
     
  the form of the debt securities of the series;
     
  the applicability of any guarantees;
     
  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
     
  whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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  if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
     
  the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
     
  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
     
  if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
     
  the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
     
  the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
     
  any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;
     
  whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;
     
  if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;
     
  if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
     
  additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
     
  additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;
     
  additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
     
  additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
     
  additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

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  the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
     
  whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
     
  the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
     
  any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
     
  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of our common shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than any subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
     
  if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
     
  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
     
  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
     
  subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

  the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
     
  the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;
     
  such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and
     
  the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;
     
  to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

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  to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;
     
  to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;
     
  to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;
     
  to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
     
  to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;
     
  to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or
     
  to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;
     
  reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or
     
  reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

  provide for payment;
     
  register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
     
  replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
     
  pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;
     
  maintain paying agencies;
     
  hold monies for payment in trust;
     
  recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

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  compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
     
  appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
     
  register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common shares, preferred shares or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common shares, preferred shares or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

 

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates listing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, as well as any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that list the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will describe the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;
     
  the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;
     
  the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable on exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased on such exercise;
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase common shares or preferred shares, the number of common shares or preferred shares, as the case may be, purchasable on the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased on such exercise;
     
  the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;
     
  the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
     
  any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable on exercise of the warrants;
     
  the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;
     
  the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

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  a discussion of material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;
     
  the terms of the securities issuable on exercise of the warrants; and
     
  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable on such exercise, including:

 

  in the case of warrants to purchase common shares or preferred shares, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments on our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable on exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as listed in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we list in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

On receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable on such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand on us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable on exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

 19 

 

 

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

  how it handles securities payments and notices;
     
  whether it imposes fees or charges;
     
  how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
     
  whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
     
  how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
     
  if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the DTC, New York, New York, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers.

 

We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

 20 

 

 

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

  an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
     
  an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;
     
  an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
     
  an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
     
  the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;
     
  we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
     
  the depositary may, and we understand that the DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
     
  financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

  Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:
     
  if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
     
  if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
     
  if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

 21 

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

  at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
     
  at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
     
  at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
     
  at negotiated prices.

 

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

  on or through the facilities of the NYSE American or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or
     
  other than on the NYSE American or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

 

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;
     
  the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;
     
  any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;
     
  any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
     
  any public offering price;
     
  any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
     
  any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

 22 

 

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

All securities we offer, other than common shares, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the NYSE American may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the NYSE American in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

 23 

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, San Diego, California. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including our company. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.lineagecell.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (File No. 001-12830):

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 12, 2020, as amended by our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2020; and
     
  the description of our common shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with SEC on October 26, 2009, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items, and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of all offerings covered by this prospectus. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Chief Financial Officer, 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200, Carlsbad, California 92008; telephone: (442) 287-8990.

 

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.

 

 24 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 1, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS

 

Up to $25,000,000

 

Common Shares

 

 

 

We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, relating to our common shares offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell our common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $25,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald acting as sales agent pursuant to this prospectus.

 

Our common shares are listed on the NYSE American and on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange under the symbol “LCTX.” On April 29, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common shares on the NYSE American was $0.8680 per share.

 

Sales of our common shares, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cantor Fitzgerald is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common shares requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cantor Fitzgerald and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common shares on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-4 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is            , 2020

 

   

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS S-ii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY S-1
RISK FACTORS S-4
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS S-5
USE OF PROCEEDS S-7
DILUTION S-8
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION S-9
LEGAL MATTERS S-10
EXPERTS S-10
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION S-10
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE S-10

 

 S-i 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus relates to part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $75,000,000. The $25,000,000 of common shares that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $75,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement.

 

This prospectus relates to the offering of our common shares. Before buying any of the common shares that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common shares and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus) the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

 

 S-ii 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This following summary highlights information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common shares. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page S-4  and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Lineage,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. Our focus is to develop therapies for degenerative retinal diseases, neurological conditions associated with demyelination, and aiding the body in detecting and combating cancer. Our programs are based on our proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated development and manufacturing capabilities. From this platform, we develop and manufacture specialized, terminally or partially differentiated human cells from established and well-characterized pluripotent cell lines. These differentiated cells are developed either to replace or support cells that are dysfunctional or absent due to degenerative disease or traumatic injury, or are administered as a means of helping the body mount an effective immune response to cancer.

 

Product Candidates & Other Programs

 

We have three allogeneic, or “off-the-shelf,” cell therapy programs in clinical development:

 

  OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy currently in a Phase 1/2a multicenter clinical trial for the treatment of advanced dry age-related macular degeneration (“AMD”) with geographic atrophy. There currently are no therapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for dry AMD, which accounts for approximately 85-90% of all AMD cases and is a leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65.
     
  OPC1, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy for acute spinal cord injuries. We have completed enrollment in a 25-patient Phase 1/2a multicenter clinical trial with OPC1; this trial was partially funded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. There are currently no therapies approved by the FDA.
     
  VAC2, a cancer immunotherapy of antigen-presenting dendritic cells currently in a Phase 1 clinical trial in non-small cell lung cancer. This clinical trial is being funded and conducted by Cancer Research UK, the world’s largest independent cancer research charity.

 

Ownership in Other Companies

 

In addition to seeking to create value for shareholders by developing product candidates and other technologies through our clinical development programs, we also seek to create value from our technologies through partnering and strategic transactions. We founded two companies that later became publicly traded companies: OncoCyte Corporation and AgeX Therapeutics, Inc.

 

Though our principal focus is on advancing our three cell therapy programs in clinical development, we may seek to create additional value through corporate transactions, as we have in the past. Our securities holdings also may be a significant source of capital to fund our operations as an alternative to issuing additional Lineage securities.

 

 

 S-1 

 

 

 

Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated in the State of California under the name BioTime, Inc. In August 2019, we changed our name to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. Our common shares trade on the NYSE American and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange under the symbol “LCTX.” Our principal executive offices are at 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200, Carlsbad, California 92008, and our phone number at that address is (442) 287-8990. Our website address is www.lineagecell.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and TM, but such references should not be construed as any indication that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

 

 

 S-2 

 

 

 

The Offering

 

Common Shares Offered by Us Common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $25,000,000.
   
Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cantor Fitzgerald. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9 .

 

   
Use of Proceeds We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7 of this prospectus.
   
Risk Factors Investing in our common shares involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-4  of this prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
   
NYSE American symbol “LCTX”.

 

 

 S-3 

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as updated by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of our common shares in this offering. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common shares, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

 

Our management might apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may impair the value of your investment.

 

Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. Our management might apply these proceeds in ways with which you do not agree, or in ways that do not improve our financial condition or market value, which could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per common share outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 28,801,843 of our common shares are sold at a price of $0.8680 per share, the last reported sale price of our common shares on the NYSE American on April 29, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $25,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $0.44 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2019 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants, and the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units, would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the common shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing shareholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional common shares or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for common shares at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing shareholders. The price per share at which we sell additional common shares, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common shares, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

We do not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our common shares and currently do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

 S-4 

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, and the documents incorporated in this prospectus by reference, contain forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections titled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our most recent subsequent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, filed with the SEC.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “positioned,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of those terms, and similar expressions intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these statements.

 

Any statements in this prospectus, or incorporated herein by reference, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

 

  our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;
     
  the initiation, progress, success, cost and timing of our clinical trials and product development activities;
     
  the therapeutic potential of our product candidates, and the disease indications for which we intend to develop our product candidates;
     
  our ability and timing to advance our product candidates into, and to successfully initiate, conduct, enroll and complete, clinical trials;
     
  our ability to manufacture our product candidates for clinical development and, if approved, for commercialization, and the timing and costs of such manufacture;
     
  the performance of third parties in connection with the development and manufacture of our product candidates, including third parties conducting our clinical trials as well as third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
     
  the potential of our cell therapy platform, and our plans to apply our platform to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;
     
  our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to initiate and complete clinical trials of our product candidates;
     
  the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
     
  the potential scope and value of our intellectual property rights;
     
  our ability, and the ability of our licensors, to obtain, maintain, defend and enforce intellectual property rights protecting our product candidates, and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties;
     
  our ability to recruit and retain key personnel;

 

 S-5 

 

 

  the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations;
     
  our expected use of proceeds from this offering; and
     
  other risks and uncertainties, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus.

 

You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section contained in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with this offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.

 

Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

 S-6 

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell common shares having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $25,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald as a source of financing.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development and capital expenditures. Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment-grade securities, certificates of deposit or government securities.

 

 S-7 

 

 

DILUTION

 

Our net tangible book value as of December 31, 2019 was $52.3 million, or $0.35 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of common shares outstanding as of December 31, 2019. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of common shares in this offering and the net tangible book value per common share immediately after this offering.

 

After giving effect to the sale of 28,801,843 common shares in this offering at an assumed offering price of $0.8680 per share, the last reported sale price of our common shares on the NYSE American on April 29, 2020, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2019 would have been approximately $76.4 million, or $0.43 per share. This would represent an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.08 per share to existing shareholders and immediate dilution of $0.44 per share to investors purchasing our common shares in this offering at the assumed public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed public offering price per share      $0.8680 
Net tangible book value per share of as December 31, 2019  $0.35      
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering  $

0.08

      
           
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering       $

0.43

 
           
Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common shares in this offering       $0.44 

 

The above discussion and table are based on 149,804,284 common shares outstanding as of December 31, 2019 and excludes, as of that date:

 

  1,089,900 common shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.15 per share;
     
  14,710,250 common shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.17 per share;
     
  166,087 common shares reserved for issuance upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units; and
     
  9,157,508 common shares reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (“2012 Plan”), as well as any future increases in the number of common shares reserved for issuance under the 2012 Plan.

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 28,801,843 common shares are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald at a price of $0.8680 per share, the last reported sale price of our common shares on the NYSE American on April 29, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $25,000,000. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.20 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed public offering price of $0.8680 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common shares in the aggregate amount of approximately $25,000,000 during the term of the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald is sold at that price, would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.44 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.63 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.20 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed public offering price of $0.8680 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common shares in the aggregate amount of approximately $25,000,000 during the term of the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald is sold at that price, would decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.41 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.26 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

To the extent that outstanding stock options or warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2019 have been or may be exercised, restricted stock units have or will vest and settle or other shares have or will be issued, investors purchasing our common shares in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our shareholders.

 

 S-8 

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald, under which we may issue and sell common shares having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $25,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald acting as sales agent. The sales agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our Registration Statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Following delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cantor Fitzgerald may offer and sell our common shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct Cantor Fitzgerald not to sell common shares if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may suspend the offering of common shares upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

We will pay Cantor Fitzgerald commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common shares. Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse Cantor Fitzgerald for certain specified fees and documented expenses, including the fees and documented expenses of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000, as provided in the sales agreement. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to Cantor Fitzgerald under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $180,000.

 

Settlement for sales of common shares will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Cantor Fitzgerald in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common shares as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cantor Fitzgerald may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Cantor Fitzgerald will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, to solicit offers to purchase the common shares under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common shares on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor Fitzgerald against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering of our common shares pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate as permitted therein. We and Cantor Fitzgerald may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.

 

Cantor Fitzgerald and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Cantor Fitzgerald will not engage in any market making activities involving our common shares while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Cantor Fitzgerald, and Cantor Fitzgerald may distribute this prospectus electronically.

 

 S-9 

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the common shares offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, San Diego, California. Reed Smith LLP, New York, New York, is counsel for Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.lineagecell.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (File No. 001-12830):

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 12, 2020, as amended by our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2020; and
     
  the description of our common shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with SEC on October 26, 2009, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items, and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering covered by this prospectus. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Chief Financial Officer, 2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200, Carlsbad, California 92008; telephone: (442) 287-8990.

 

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.

 

 S-10 

 

 

 

 

Up to $25,000,000

Common Shares

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 

 

      , 2020

 

 

   

 

 

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee  $9,735 
Accounting fees and expenses  $ * 
Legal fees and expenses  $* 
Transfer agent, printing and miscellaneous expenses  $* 
Total  $ * 

 

* These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Section 317 of the California Corporations Code (“California Code”), provides for the indemnification of directors, officers, employees, and other agents of corporations under certain conditions subject to certain limitations. In addition, Section 204(a)(10) of the California Code permits a corporation to provide, in its articles of incorporation, that directors shall not have liability to the corporation or its shareholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty, subject to certain prescribed exceptions. Our Restated Articles of Incorporation, as amended to date, contains provisions for the indemnification of directors, officers, employees and other agents within the limitations permitted by Section 317 and for the limitation on the personal liability of directors permitted by Section 204(b)(10), subject to the exceptions required thereby.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling our company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

(a) Exhibits

 

        Incorporation by Reference

Exhibit

Number

  Description  

Exhibit

Number

  Filing   Filing Date   File No.
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement                
1.2   Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated May 1, 2020, between Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.                
3.1   Restated Articles of Incorporation, as amended   3.1   10-Q   May 10, 2018   001-12830
3.2   Certificate of Ownership   3.1   8-K   August 12, 2019   001-12830
3.3   Amended and Restated Bylaws   3.2   8-K   August 12, 2019   001-12830
4.1   Specimen of Common Share Certificate       S-1   December 18, 1991   033-44549
4.2*   Form of Preferred Share Certificate and Certificate of Determination of Preferred Shares                
4.3   Form of Indenture, between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named                
4.4*   Form of Debt Securities                
4.5   Form of Common Share Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                

 

 II-1 

 

 

4.6   Form of Preferred Share Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                
4.7   Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                
5.1   Opinion of Cooley LLP                
23.1   Consent of OUM & Co. LLP                
23.2   Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)                
24.1   Power of Attorney is included on signature page hereto                
25.1**   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture                

 

* To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or by a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.

 

** To be filed, if applicable, in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

 II-2 

 

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 II-3 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Carlsbad, California, on May 1, 2020.

 

  LINEAGE CELL THERAPEUTICS, INC.
   
  By: /s/ Brian M. Culley
    Brian M. Culley
    Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Brian M. Culley and Brandi L. Roberts, and each of them, his or her true and lawful agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to: (i) act on, sign and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto and any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, together with all schedules and exhibits thereto; (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith; (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended; and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his or her substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Brian M. Culley   Chief Executive Officer and Director   May 1, 2020
BRIAN M. CULLEY   (Principal Executive Officer)    
         
/s/ Brandi Roberts   Chief Financial Officer   May 1, 2020
BRANDI ROBERTS   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Deborah Andrews   Director   May 1, 2020
DEBORAH ANDREWS        
         
/s/ Don M. Bailey   Director   May 1, 2020
DON M. BAILEY        
         
/s/ Neal C. Bradsher   Director   May 1, 2020
NEAL C. BRADSHER        
         
/s/ Stephen C. Farrell   Director   May 1, 2020
STEPHEN C. FARRELL        
         
/s/ Alfred D. Kingsley   Director   May 1, 2020
ALFRED D. KINGSLEY        
         
/s/ Michael H. Mulroy   Director   May 1, 2020
MICHAEL H. MULROY        
         
/s/ Angus C. Russell   Director   May 1, 2020
ANGUS C. RUSSELL        

 

   

 

 

Exhibit 1.2

 

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.
Common Shares

(no par value per share)

 

Controlled Equity OfferingSM

 

Sales Agreement

 

May 1, 2020

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., a California corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (the “Agent”), as follows:

 

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent, common shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, no par value per share (the “Common Shares”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agent such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would exceed (a) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares registered on the effective Registration Statement (as defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) the number of authorized but unissued Common Shares (less Common Shares issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (as defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Common Shares.

 

 

 

 

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) (as defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

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2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, which declination must occur within two (2) Business Days (as defined below) of the receipt of the Placement Notice, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

3. Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the NYSE American (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Shares, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Shares are traded on the Exchange.

 

4. Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agent, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

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5. Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.

 

(a) Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.

 

(b) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority (as defined below) in respect of such sales.

 

(c) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

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(d) Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

 

(e) Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

 

6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below), unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different time:

 

(a) Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agent as the agent in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the applicable requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agent and its counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to which the Agent has consented. The Common Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “LCTX.” The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Shares under the Exchange Act, delisting the Common Shares from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange.

 

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(b) No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Incorporated Documents did not, and any further Incorporated Documents will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

 

(c) Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the Incorporated Documents, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

 

(d) Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in shareholders’ equity of the Company for the periods specified (subject, in the case of unaudited financial statements to normal year-end adjustments) and have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act and in conformity with GAAP (as defined below) applied on a consistent basis (subject, in the case of unaudited financial statements to normal year-end adjustments) during the periods involved; the other financial and statistical data with respect to the Company and the Subsidiaries contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, are accurately and fairly presented and prepared on a basis consistent with the financial statements and books and records of the Company; there are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required; the Company and the Subsidiaries do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), not described in the Registration Statement (excluding the exhibits thereto), and the Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

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(e) Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(f) Organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries is duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of incorporation or organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries is duly licensed or qualified as a foreign entity for transaction of business and in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such license or qualification, and have all corporate power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect or would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on or affecting the assets, business, operations, earnings, properties, condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, shareholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, or prevent or materially interfere with consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

 

(g) Subsidiaries. The subsidiaries referenced on Schedule 4 (collectively, the “Subsidiaries”), are the Company’s only significant subsidiaries (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the Commission). Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, the Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the equity interests of the Subsidiaries free and clear of any lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal or other restriction, and all the equity interests of the Subsidiaries are validly issued and are fully paid, nonassessable and free of preemptive and similar rights. No Subsidiary is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such Subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such Subsidiary’s property or assets to the Company or any other Subsidiary of the Company.

 

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(h) No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries are subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any Governmental Authority, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge, no other party under any material contract or other agreement to which it or any of its Subsidiaries is a party is in default in any respect thereunder where such default would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(i) No Material Adverse Change. Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect or the occurrence of any development that the Company reasonably expects will result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) any transaction which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iii) any obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company or any Subsidiary, which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iv) any material change in the capital stock or outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company or any Subsidiary, other than in each case above in the ordinary course of business or as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus.

 

(j) Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights. The Company has authorized, issued and outstanding shares of capital stock as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein and such authorized capital stock conforms to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Except as disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as of the date referred to therein, the Company does not have outstanding any options to purchase, or any rights or warrants to subscribe for, or any securities or obligations convertible into, or exchangeable for, or any contracts or commitments to issue or sell, any shares of capital stock or other securities.

 

(k) Authorization; Enforceability. The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles.

 

(l) Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform to the description thereof set forth in the Prospectus.

 

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(m) No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares, except for such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required under applicable state securities laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) or the Exchange in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agent.

 

(n) No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than pursuant to options, other equity awards or warrants granted subsequent to the end of the period covered by the most recent periodic report included within the Incorporated Documents that are not required to be disclosed in a Current Report on Form 8-K pursuant to applicable Commission rules and regulations), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, rights of co-sale, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Common Shares, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Shares or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.

 

(o) Independent Public Accounting Firm. OUM & Co. LLP (the “Accountant”), whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). To the Company’s knowledge, the Accountant is not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) with respect to the Company.

 

(p) Enforceability of Agreements. To the Company’s knowledge, all agreements between the Company and third parties expressly referenced in the Prospectus are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their respective terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification provisions of certain agreements may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations in respect thereof.

 

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(q) No Litigation. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no actions, suits or proceedings by or before any Governmental Authority pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any audits or investigations by or before any Governmental Authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits, proceedings, audits or investigations are threatened or contemplated by any Governmental Authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending audits or investigations, actions, suits or proceedings by or before any Governmental Authority that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described; and (ii) there are no contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not so filed.

 

(r) Consents and Permits. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have made all filings, applications and submissions required by, possesses and is operating in compliance with, all approvals, licenses, certificates, certifications, clearances, consents, grants, exemptions, marks, notifications, orders, permits and other authorizations issued by, the appropriate federal, state or foreign Governmental Authority (including, without limitation, the United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), the United States Drug Enforcement Administration or any other foreign, federal, state, provincial, court or Governmental Authorities including self-regulatory organizations engaged in the regulation of clinical trials, pharmaceuticals, biologics or biohazardous substances or materials) necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), except for such Permits the failure of which to possess, obtain or make the same would not have a Material Adverse Effect; the Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Permits, except where the failure to be in compliance would not have a Material Adverse Effect; all of the Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where any invalidity, individually or in the aggregate, would not be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice relating to the limitation, revocation, cancellation, suspension, modification or non-renewal of any such Permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect, or has any reason to believe that any such license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course. To the extent required by applicable laws and regulations of the FDA, the Company or the applicable Subsidiary has submitted to the FDA an Investigational New Drug Application or amendment or supplement thereto for each clinical trial it has conducted or sponsored or is conducting or sponsoring; all such submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws and rules and regulations when submitted and no material deficiencies have been asserted by the FDA with respect to any such submissions. The Company and each Subsidiary possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the appropriate state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies necessary to conduct their respective businesses, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, or has any reason to believe that it will receive, any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(s) Regulatory Filings. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has failed to file with the applicable Governmental Authorities (including, without limitation, the FDA, or any foreign, federal, state, provincial or local Governmental Authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission, except for such failures that, individually or in the aggregate, would not have a Material Adverse Effect; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in compliance with applicable laws when filed and no deficiencies have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, except for any deficiencies that, individually or in the aggregate, would not have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has operated and currently is, in all material respects, in compliance with the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and other federal, state, local and foreign Governmental Authority exercising comparable authority. The Company has no knowledge of any studies, tests or trials not described in the Prospectus the results of which reasonably call into question in any material respect the results of the studies, tests and trials described in the Prospectus.

 

(t) Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to the Company’s knowledge, the Company and its Subsidiaries own, possess, license or have other rights to use all foreign and domestic patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, Internet domain names, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted except to the extent that the failure to own, possess, license or otherwise hold adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (i) to the Company’s knowledge, there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries that the Company reasonably expects would interfere with the use of such Intellectual Property in the operation of the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ respective businesses; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (iv) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property; (v) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company and its Subsidiaries infringe or otherwise violate any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others; (vi) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no third-party U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application which contains claims for which an Interference Proceeding (as defined in 35 U.S.C. § 135) has been commenced against any patent or patent application described in the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company; and (vii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except, in the case of any of clauses (i)-(vii) above, for any such infringement by third parties or any such pending or threatened suit, action, proceeding or claim as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u) Clinical Studies. To the Company’s knowledge, the preclinical studies and tests and clinical trials described in the Prospectus were, and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company; the descriptions of such studies, tests and trials, and the results thereof, contained in the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any tests, studies or trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which reasonably call into question the results of the tests, studies and trials described in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any written notice or correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local Governmental Authority exercising comparable authority or any institutional review board or comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension, clinical hold or material modification of any tests, studies or trials.

 

(v) Market Capitalization. At the time the Registration Statement was or will be originally declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 or I.B.6 of Form S-3, as applicable. The Company satisfies the pre-1992 eligibility requirements for the use of a registration statement on Form S-3 in connection with this offering (the pre-1992 eligibility requirements for the use of the registration statement on Form S-3 include (i) having a non-affiliate, public common equity float of at least $150 million or a non-affiliate, public common equity float of at least $100 million and annual trading volume of at least three million shares and (ii) having been subject to the Exchange Act reporting requirements for a period of 36 months). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

 

(w) No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(x) Certain Market Activities. Neither the Company, nor any of the Subsidiaries, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed, or that has constituted or might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

 

(y) Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

 

(z) No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(aa) Taxes. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns which have been required to be filed and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to so file or pay would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which has had, or would have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been or might be asserted or threatened against it which would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(bb) Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all items of real property owned by them, good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being owned by them, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and claims, except those matters that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries or (ii) would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Any real or personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being leased by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries is held by them under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (A) do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (B) would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(cc) Environmental Laws. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(dd) Disclosure Controls. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries maintain systems of internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f)) is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). Since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e)) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to the Company and each of its Subsidiaries is made known to the certifying officers by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is being prepared. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date and the disclosure controls and procedures are effective. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no significant changes in the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures or, to the Company’s knowledge, in other factors that could reasonably be expected to significantly affect the Company’s internal controls (other than as set forth in the Prospectus).

 

(ee) Sarbanes-Oxley. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

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(ff) Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(gg) Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(hh) Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares, will be an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(ii) Operations. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company or its Subsidiaries are subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Authority (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”); and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Authority involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(jj) Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company, and/or any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structural finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off-Balance Sheet Transaction”) that could reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off-Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(kk) Underwriter Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(ll) ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company and any of its Subsidiaries has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 412 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions.

 

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(mm) Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward-Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(nn) Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell Common Shares for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent.

 

(oo) Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(pp) Insurance. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company and each of its Subsidiaries reasonably believe are adequate for the conduct of their properties and as is customary for companies engaged in similar businesses in similar industries.

 

(qq) No Improper Practices. (i) Neither the Company nor the Subsidiaries, nor any director, officer, or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of applicable law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any applicable law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary or any affiliate of any of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company or any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary or any affiliate of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, or stockholders of the Company or any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any Subsidiary to or for the benefit of any of their respective officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; and (v) the Company has not offered, or caused any placement agent to offer, Common Shares to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company or any Subsidiary to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or any Subsidiary or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their respective products or services, and, (vi) neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor any director, officer or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has (A) violated or is in violation of any applicable provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law (collectively, “Anti-Corruption Laws”), (B) promised, offered, provided, attempted to provide or authorized the provision of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any person for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, influencing any act or decision of the recipient, or securing any improper advantage; or (C) made any payment of funds of the Company or any Subsidiary or received or retained any funds in violation of any Anti-Corruption Laws.

 

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(rr) Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

 

(ss) No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.

 

(tt) No Conflicts. Neither the execution of this Agreement, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Placement Shares, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein and therein, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof and thereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company may be bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches or defaults as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches and defaults that would not have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the organizational or governing documents of the Company, or (y) in any material violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any Governmental Authority having jurisdiction over the Company.

 

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(uu) Sanctions. (i) The Company represents that, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Entity”) or, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Entity, is a government, individual, or entity (in this paragraph (uu), “Person”) that is, or is controlled or 50% or more owned in the aggregate by or is acting on behalf of, one or more Persons that is:

 

(A) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authorities, including, without limitation, designation on OFAC’s Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List or OFAC’s Foreign Sanctions Evaders List (as amended, collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

 

(B) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions that broadly prohibit dealings with that country or territory (the “Sanctioned Countries”).

 

(ii) The Entity represents and covenants that it will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

 

(A) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions or is a Sanctioned Country; or

 

(B) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

 

(iii) The Entity represents and covenants that, except as detailed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, for the past 5 years, it has not knowingly engaged in, is not now knowingly engaging in, and will not knowingly engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or is or was a Sanctioned Country.

 

(vv) Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with.

 

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(ww) Compliance with Laws. To the Company’s knowledge, the Company and each of its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and statutes in the jurisdictions in which it carries on business; and the Company has not received a notice of non-compliance, nor knows of, nor has reasonable grounds to know of, any facts that could give rise to a notice of non-compliance with any such laws, regulations and statutes; in each case that would materially adversely affect the business of the Company or the business or legal environment under which the Company operates. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries: (A) is and at all times has been in compliance with all applicable statutes, rules, or regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company or its Subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), except as could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other Governmental Authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any Governmental Authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) has not received notice that any Governmental Authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority is considering such action; (F) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (G) has not, either voluntarily or involuntarily, initiated, conducted, or issued or caused to be initiated, conducted or issued, any recall, market withdrawal or replacement, safety alert, post sale warning, “dear healthcare provider” letter, or other notice or action relating to the alleged lack of safety or efficacy of any product or any alleged product defect or violation and, to the Company’s knowledge, no third party has initiated, conducted or intends to initiate any such notice or action.

 

(xx) Statistical and Market-Related Data. The statistical, demographic and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate or represent the Company’s good faith estimates that are made on the basis of data derived from such sources.

 

(yy) Cybersecurity. The Company and each Subsidiary’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable physical, technical and administrative controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data, including all Personal Data (as defined below) and all sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Confidential Data”) used in connection with their businesses. “Personal Data” means (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) “personal data” as defined by GDPR (as defined below); (iv) any information which would qualify as “protected health information” under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (collectively, “HIPAA”); (v) any “personal information” as defined by the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”); and (vi) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. There have been no material breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any material incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same.

 

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(zz) Compliance with Data Privacy Laws. The Company and each Subsidiary is, and at all relevant times were, in material compliance with all applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation HIPAA, CCPA, and the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). To ensure compliance with the Privacy Laws, the Company has in place, complies with, and takes appropriate steps to ensure compliance in all material respects with their policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, processing, disclosure, handling, and analysis of Personal Data and Confidential Data (the “Policies”). Except as would not be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company has at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and none of such disclosures made or contained in any Policy have been inaccurate or in violation of any applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements in any material respect. The Company further certifies that neither it nor any Subsidiary: (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.

 

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7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agent that:

 

(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

 

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

 

(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the interests of the Company to do so. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agent to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

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(d) Listing of Placement Shares. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

 

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f) Earning Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earning statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

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(h) Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Shares during the period beginning on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Shares prior to the sixtieth (60th) day immediately following the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Shares, options to purchase Common Shares, restricted stock units or other awards, or Common Shares issuable upon the exercise or settlement of options, restricted stock units or other awards pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Shares subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Shares issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

 

(i) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(j) Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

(k) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

(l) Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time the Company:

 

(i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

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(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

 

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate dated the Representation Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time a Suspension is in effect or there is no Placement Notice in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when a Suspension was in effect or there was no Placement Notice in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.

 

(m) Legal Opinion. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion of Cooley LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance satisfactory to Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agent no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

 

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(n) Comfort Letter. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if reasonably requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

(o) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Shares in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.

 

(p) Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(q) No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(r) Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

 

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(s) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or the Subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

 

(t) Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agent a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the Articles of Incorporation of the Company, (ii) the Bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

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8. Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the fees and expenses of Agent including but not limited to the fees and expenses of the counsel to the Agent, payable upon the execution of this Agreement, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agent’s counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of the blue sky survey, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Shares, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the fees of the Agent’s counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

 

9. Conditions to Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agent and not yet sold by the Agent and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(c) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e) Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(f) Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(g) Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

 

(h) No Suspension. Trading in the Common Shares shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Shares shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

 

(i) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.

 

(j) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission with respect to the Placement Shares required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

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(k) Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

 

(l) FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

 

(m) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).

 

10. Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent or any affiliate within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

 

(i) against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

 

(ii) against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

 

(iii) against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission (whether or not a party), to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

 

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information (as defined below).

 

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(b) Agent Indemnification. Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agent has furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the sixth and seventh paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (the “Agent Information”).

 

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 10 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action or counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, in each case, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action; in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an express and unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d) Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 10(a)(ii) effected without its written consent if (1) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (2) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (3) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

 

(e) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, any affiliates of the Agent and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent or any of its affiliates, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof.

 

11. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

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12. Termination.

 

(a) The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any change, or any development or event involving a prospective change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the business, properties, earnings, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, which individually or in the aggregate, in the sole judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Shares has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices).

 

(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c) The Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(e) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

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13. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention: Capital Markets

Facsimile: (212) 307-3730

 

and:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention: General Counsel

Facsimile: (212) 829-4708

 

with a copy to:

 

Reed Smith LLP

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10017

Attention: Aron Izower

Facsimile: (212) 521-5450

 

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

2173 Salk Avenue, Suite 200

Carlsbad, California 92008

Attention: General Counsel

Email: legal@lineagecell.com

 

with a copy to:

 

Cooley LLP

4401 Eastgate Mall

San Diego, California 92121

Attention: Steven M. Przesmicki

Facsimile: (858) 550-6420

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

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An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover or as set forth in this Section 13. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party (with an automatic “read receipt” not constituting verification of receipt for the purposes of this section). Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

14. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the parties referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent.

 

15. Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

16. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

 

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17. GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

18. CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

 

19. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

20. Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

21. Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Agent, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 21 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

 

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22. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a) the Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

 

(b) it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c) neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

(d) it is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

(e) it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.

 

23. Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

 

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iii) each Settlement Date.

 

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles.

 

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Governmental Authority” means (i) any federal, provincial, state, local, municipal, national or international government or governmental authority, regulatory or administrative agency, governmental commission, department, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, court, tribunal, arbitrator or arbitral body (public or private); (ii) any self-regulatory organization; or (iii) any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

 

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act Regulations.

 

Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.

 

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

-37-

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.
   
  By: /s/ Brandi L. Roberts
  Name: Brandi L. Roberts
  Title: Chief Financial Officer
   
  ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
   
  CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.
   
  By: /s/ Sage Kelly
  Name: Sage Kelly
  Title: Senior Managing Director

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

 

 

Form of Placement Notice

 

 

 

From: Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.
   
To: Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
  Attention: [•]
   
Subject: Placement Notice
   
Date: [•], 202[•]

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., a California corporation (the “Company”), and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Agent”), dated May 1, 2020, the Company hereby requests that the Agent sell up to [•] of the Company’s Common Shares, no par value per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

 

 

Compensation

 

 

 

The Company shall pay to the Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

 

 

Notice Parties

 

 

 

The Company

 

Brandi L. Roberts (broberts@lineagecell.com)

 

With copies to:

 

legal@lineagecell.com

 

The Agent

 

Sameer Vasudev (svasudev@cantor.com)

 

With copies to:

 

CFControlledEquityOffering@cantor.com

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 4

 

 

 

Subsidiaries

 

 

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 of the Company’s most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 21

 

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus

 

None.

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.3

 

LINEAGE CELL THERAPEUTICS, INC.,
Iss
uer

 

AND

 

[TRUSTEE],

 

Trustee

 

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [●], 20__

 

 

 

Debt Securities

 

   
 

 

Table Of Contents

 

        Page
         

article 1 DEFINITIONS
  1
         
Section 1.01   Definitions of Terms   1
         
article 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES   5
         
Section 2.01   Designation and Terms of Securities   5
Section 2.02   Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate   8
Section 2.03   Denominations: Provisions for Payment   8
Section 2.04   Execution and Authentications   10
Section 2.05   Registration of Transfer and Exchange   11
Section 2.06   Temporary Securities   12
Section 2.07   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities   12
Section 2.08   Cancellation   13
Section 2.09   Benefits of Indenture   13
Section 2.10   Authenticating Agent   14
Section 2.11   Global Securities   14
Section 2.12   CUSIP Numbers   15
         
article 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS   16
         
Section 3.01   Redemption   16
Section 3.02   Notice of Redemption   16
Section 3.03   Payment Upon Redemption   17
Section 3.04   Sinking Fund   17
Section 3.05   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities   18
Section 3.06   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund   18
         
article 4 COVENANTS   19
         
Section 4.01   Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest   19
Section 4.02   Maintenance of Office or Agency   19
Section 4.03   Paying Agents   19
Section 4.04   Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee   20

 

 i. 
 

 

Table Of Contents

(continued)

 

        Page
         
article 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE   20
         
Section 5.01   Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders   20
Section 5.02   Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders   21
Section 5.03   Reports by the Company   21
Section 5.04   Reports by the Trustee   22
         
article 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT   22
         
Section 6.01   Events of Default   22
Section 6.02   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee   24
Section 6.03   Application of Moneys Collected   25
Section 6.04   Limitation on Suits   26
Section 6.05   Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver   26
Section 6.06   Control by Securityholders   27
Section 6.07   Undertaking to Pay Costs   27
         
article 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE   28
         
Section 7.01   Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee   28
Section 7.02   Certain Rights of Trustee   29
Section 7.03   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities   31
Section 7.04   May Hold Securities   32
Section 7.05   Moneys Held in Trust   32
Section 7.06   Compensation and Reimbursement   32
Section 7.07   Reliance on Officer’s Certificate   33
Section 7.08   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests   33
Section 7.09   Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility   33
Section 7.10   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor   33
Section 7.11   Acceptance of Appointment By Successor   35
Section 7.12   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business   36
Section 7.13   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company   36
Section 7.14   Notice of Default.   36

 

 ii. 
 

 

Table Of Contents

(continued)

 

        Page
         
article 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS   37
         
Section 8.01   Evidence of Action by Securityholders   37
Section 8.02   Proof of Execution by Securityholders   37
Section 8.03   Who May be Deemed Owners   38
Section 8.04   Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded   38
Section 8.05   Actions Binding on Future Securityholders   38
         
article 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES   39
         
Section 9.01   Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders   39
Section 9.02   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders   40
Section 9.03   Effect of Supplemental Indentures   40
Section 9.04   Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures   41
Section 9.05   Execution of Supplemental Indentures   41
         
article 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY   41
         
Section 10.01   Company May Consolidate, Etc.   41
Section 10.02   Successor Entity Substituted   42
         
article 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE   42
         
Section 11.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture   42
Section 11.02   Discharge of Obligations   43
Section 11.03   Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust   43
Section 11.04   Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents   43
Section 11.05   Repayment to Company   44
         
article 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, SHAREHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS   44
         
Section 12.01   No Recourse   44
         
article 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS   45
         
Section 13.01   Effect on Successors and Assigns   45
Section 13.02   Actions by Successor   45
Section 13.03   Surrender of Company Powers   45
Section 13.04   Notices   45
Section 13.05   Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver   45
Section 13.06   Treatment of Securities as Debt   46
Section 13.07   Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent   46
Section 13.08   Payments on Business Days   46
Section 13.09   Conflict with Trust Indenture Act   47
Section 13.10   Counterparts   47
Section 13.11   Separability   47
Section 13.12   Compliance Certificates   47
Section 13.13   Patriot Act   47
Section 13.14   Force Majeure   47
Section 13.12   Table of Contents; Headings   47

 

 iii. 
 

 

INDENTURE

 

Indenture, dated as of [●], 20__, among Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc., a California corporation (the “Company”), and [Trustee], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

Whereas, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

Whereas, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

Whereas, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

article 1

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.